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Accepted Issues & Character Creation

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Accepted Issues & Character Creation

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 12:44 pm

General Character Creation Rules

When you create a character for Oakview, you have a choice between creating a patient or a member of Oakview staff. Both types of character have their advantages, to be certain. Staff characters have more free reign, while patients are more restricted and more controlled. To foster equality in our rosters, we have a character cap in place at all times. This cap restricts you to only five characters at a time, two of which must be staff. You may request permission to make more characters, but you must have approval for each additional character, and you must show that you are active not only with your patients, but with your staff characters too. You can have a lot of fun with staff characters as well as patients, so when you think about the characters you'd like to create, please consider this option too.

* * *
Patients

Patient characters must be aged fourteen through seventeen only. You may not play characters younger than this, or older than this on the board.

We do currently allow siblings on STC, with the exception of twins unless you receive express permission from an administrator. Also, be aware that male-female siblings will not be housed together under any circumstances. Troublesome siblings, such as those showing incestuous behaviours, are very likely to be separated upon admission also.

When you make a patient character, you must choose their issues from the approved issues list below only. We will not accept characters with issues other than those specified on the list, even if those issues are comorbid with an issue they have from the list. For example, Selective Mutism is not accepted, even though it can occur from certain anxiety disorders. It is a diagnosis of its own, and therefore is not accepted since it is absent from the list. From time to time we may open up the ability for you to request permission to play a character with an issue that is not on the list, so keep an eye out!

We strive for a sense of realism on STC, so please try to make sure you character's back story is plausible for the universe in which we live. For example, if your patient was being physically abused, when did people notice and report it, and if they didn't how and why? Likewise with other drastic behaviours or scenarios, make sure you explain how they affected the character's life, and what consequences arose from them. Few things are without consequence in this world, so try to keep that in mind.

Take your time with your character creation! Have fun with it, and don't feel like you have to rush. We'll still be here tomorrow, and the day after, and the day after. Do your research into the issues you chose, make sure your timeline makes sense, explore your character rather than just the issues that have sent them here. Who are they? How do they feel outside of the issues? What was their life like and how did it affect them? Writing your application is one of the most important creative endeavours on this site, as it will dictate the character that you will be playing once they're approved, so give it the time and thought necessary.

* * *
Staff

Staff characters must choose a vacant position from the Staff Roster, located LINK TO COME

When creating a staff character on STC, there are some things you should bear in mind. All potential staff must undergo a drug test and a full background check before they are hired. They must also be competant in the position for which they are applying, have the correct credentials and experience, and pass the employment application process. The staff of Oakview are a small and close-knit family of sorts. They must be able to work as a team, and they must not be dysfunctional to the point that this family begins to break down, or their work is impeded. Staff characters that are heavily addicted to alcohol or controlled substances are unlikely to pass the screening process. Staff characters with violent criminal histories are also likely to fail the screening process. Oakview hand picks its staff members to ensure the integrity of the group, so try to keep your staff character reasonable.

This does not mean that you cannot play a dysfunctional character or a character that was or might become an addict, but they must be competent enough to do their work without raising red flags, and must pass the screening processes. Remember, staff characters that are found breaching these terms may be subject to termination. Oakview will not hesitate to fire a member of staff who endangers themselves or others with foolish behaviours and decisions.

Try to keep in mind the age of your character in relation to their job. Oakview is looking for those with the appropriate schooling and a number of years of experience in their field. For example, a psychiatrist must take four years of pre-med, four years of medical school, and roughly four years of medical residency concurrent with their psychiatric focus. That's twelve years of schooling before they even begin to gain years of experience, so a very young character would not fit for this sort of role. A quick google search of "How Many Years Does it Take to Become a _______" should give you a rough idea of what sort of age you'd be looking at, with some years of experience tacked on.



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Accepted Issues

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 12:46 pm

Accepted Issues

Below you will find our (rather lengthy) list of accepted issues for Oakview. Be advised that we do not accept issues that are not on this list (especially any sorts of hallucinatory issues such as certain specific schizophrenias not on the list, or Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personalities), even if they fall comorbidly with one of the accepted issues.

When you create your patient character, you must choose One Primary Issue that stands out above all of the others, with up to three comorbid issues that must fit logically with the primary issue you have selected. The descriptions of the issues provided for you are only brief summaries. You must do your own research on the issues you select so as not to make incorrect assumptions on them that may hinder your application process and earn you pending notices.

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Emotional & Behavioural Disorders

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 12:48 pm

Emotional & Behavioral Disorders

Conduct Disorder - Every teenager has a coping method; only some of the methods are troublesome or destructive. Such behavior is indicative of conduct disorder only if it persists. This disorder is much more common among boys than girls. It is a pattern of repetitive behavior wherein the rights of others or social norms are violated. Symptoms include verbal and physical aggression, cruel behavior toward people and pets, destructive behavior, lying, truancy, vandalism, and stealing. Conduct disorder is closely linked to psychopathy, a personality disorder characterized by an abnormal lack of empathy combined with strongly amoral conduct but masked by an ability to appear outwardly normal.


Reactive Attachment Disorder - Reactive attachment disorder is a rare but serious condition in which infants and young children don't establish healthy bonds with parents or caregivers. A child with reactive attachment disorder is typically neglected, abused or orphaned. Reactive attachment disorder develops because the child's basic needs for comfort, affection and nurturing aren't met and loving, caring attachments with others are never established. This may permanently change the child's growing brain, hurting the ability to establish future relationships.

As children with reactive attachment disorder grow older, they may develop either inhibited or disinhibited behavior patterns. While some children have signs and symptoms of just one type of behavior, many exhibit both types.
-Inhibited behavior: Children with inhibited behavior shun relationships and attachments to virtually everyone. This may happen when a baby never has the chance to develop an attachment to any caregiver.
-Disinhibited behavior: Children with disinhibited behavior seek attention from virtually everyone, including strangers. This may happen when a baby has multiple caregivers or frequent changes in caregivers. Children with this type of reactive attachment disorder may frequently ask for help doing tasks, have inappropriately childish behavior or appear anxious.
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Anxiety Disorders

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 12:49 pm

Anxiety Disorders

Agoraphobia (with or without a history of Panic Disorder) - Etiology
Agoraphobia can develop out of simple phobias or it can be a result of extreme trauma, although it is often a result of numerous panic attacks such as those found in panic disorder.
Symptoms
Agoraphobia, like other phobias, is made up of extreme anxiety and fear. Different from other phobias, however, is the generalization which occurs. Agoraphobia is the anxiety about being in places where escape might be difficult or embarrassing or in which help may not be available should a panic attack develop. It can be sub diagnosed as either ‘with’ or ‘without’ panic disorder (see above). Typically situations that invoke anxiety are avoided and in extreme cases, the person may never or rarely leave their home.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder [GAD] - Etiology
Often anxiety gets generalized to other situations, and can then become overwhelming or associated with life in general. Typically GAD develops over a period of time and may not be noticed until it is significant enough to cause problems with functioning.
Symptoms
As its name implies, GAD is evidenced by general feelings of anxiety such as mild heart palpitations, dizziness, and excessive worry. The symptoms are difficult to control for the individual and are not related to a specific event (such as in PTSD) and are not as severe as those found with Panic Disorder.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder [OCD] - Etiology
Both biological and psychological causes have been found in OCD.
Symptoms
The key features of this disorder include obsessions (persistent, often irrational, and seemingly uncontrollable thoughts) and compulsions (actions which are used to neutralize the obsessions). A good example of this would be an individual who has thoughts that he is dirty, infected, or otherwise unclean which are persistent and uncontrollable. In order to feel better, he washes his hands numerous times throughout the day, gaining temporary relief from the thoughts each time. For these behaviors to constitute OCD, it must be disruptive to everyday functioning (such as compulsive checking before leaving the house making you extremely late for all or most appointments, washing to the point of excessive irritation of your skin, or inability to perform everyday functions like work or school because of the obsessions or compulsions).

Panic Disorder (with or without Agoraphobia) - Etiology
Often the symptoms of this disorder come on rapidly and without an identifiable stressor. The individual may have had periods of high anxiety in the past, or may have been involved in a recent stressful situation. The underlying causes, however, are typically subtle.
Symptoms
Panic Disorder is characterized by sudden attacks of intense fear or anxiety, usually associated with numerous physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, rapid breathing or shortness of breath, blurred vision, dizziness, and racing thoughts. Often these symptoms are thought to be a heart attack by the individual, and many cases are diagnosed in hospital emergency rooms.

Phobias (including Social Phobia) - Etiology
Often a traumatic event is the precursor for a phobia, which may or may not be at the conscious level.
Symptoms
Symptoms include either extreme anxiety and fear associated with the object or situation or avoidance. To be diagnosed, the symptoms must be disruptive to everyday functioning (such as quitting a great job merely because you have to use an elevator).

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD] - Etiology
By definition, PTSD always follows a traumatic event which causes intense fear and/or helplessness in an individual. Typically the symptoms develop shortly after the event, but may take years. The duration for symptoms is at least one month for this diagnosis.
Symptoms
Symptoms include re-experiencing the trauma through nightmares, obsessive thoughts, and flashbacks (feeling as if you are actually in the traumatic situation again). There is an avoidance component as well, where the individual avoids situations, people, and/or objects which remind him or her about the traumatic event (e.g., a person experiencing PTSD after a serious car accident might avoid driving or being a passenger in a car). Finally, there is increased anxiety in general, possibly with a heightened startle response (e.g., very jumpy, startle easy by noises).
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Dissociative Disorders

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 12:50 pm

Dissociative Disorders

Dissociative Amnesia - Etiology
This disorder is typically brought on by a traumatic event.
Symptoms
The primary symptoms are memory gaps related to traumatic or stressful events which are too extreme to be accounted for by normal forgetting.

Dissociative Fugue - Etiology
This disorder is very rare and occurs most often during extreme stress (such as wartime or after a natural disaster).
Symptoms
The primary feature of this disorder is abrupt travel away from home, an inability to remember important aspects of one’s life, and the partial or complete adoption of a new identity. The disorder typically dissipates on its own and it is extremely rare to last more than one month.

Depersonalisation Disorder - Etiology
As with other disorders in this category, an acute stressor is often the precursor to onset.
Symptoms
This disorder is characterized by feelings of unreality, that your body does not belong to you, or that you are constantly in a dreamlike state.
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Impulse Control Disorders

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 12:52 pm

Impulse Control Disorders

Intermittent Explosive Disorder - Etiology
This disorder is apparently rare, with the majority of cases occurring when the individual is between late adolescence and late twenties. There is some evidence of that the neurotransmitter serotonin may play a role in this disorder.
Symptoms
This disorder is characterized by frequent and often unpredictable episodes of extreme anger or physical outbursts. Between episodes, there is typically no evidence of violence or physical threat.

Kleptomania - Etiology
Kleptomania appears to be much more common in females, but little is understood about the etiology. There is also some association with other disorders such as depression and anxiety.
Symptoms
Kleptomania involves the failure to resist impulses to steal things that are not needed for either personal use or for their monetary value. There is typically anxiety prior to the act of theft and relief or gratification afterward. If the theft is related to vengeance or psychosis, kleptomania should not be diagnosed. (Kleptomania is quite rare, where common shoplifting is not).

Pyromania* - Etiology
Little is known about the etiology of pyromania, although there is research supporting an environmental component from early childhood.
Symptoms
Pyromania involves deliberate and purposeful fire setting on at lease two occasions. There is typically tension or heightened arousal prior to the act and gratification or relief afterward. The fire setting is not done for monetary gain or an expression of anger, vengeance, personal gain, or psychosis.

* This diagnosis may not be used as a sub-diagnosis to another issue. It must be the primary issue and must be appropriately researched!


Trichotillomania - Etiology
Typically occurring before adulthood, it has been demonstrated that between one to two percent of college samples have this disorder or have had it in the past.
Symptoms
The primary feature of this disorder is the recurrent pulling out of one’s own hair which results in significant hair loss.
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Mood Disorders

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 12:53 pm

Mood Disorders

Bipolar Disorder - Etiology
Research has shown a strong biological component for this disorder, with environmental factors playing a role in the exacerbation of symptoms.
Symptoms
Bipolar Disorder has been broken down into two types:
Bipolar I: For a diagnosis of Bipolar I disorder, a person must have at least one manic episode. Mania is sometimes referred to as the other extreme to depression. Mania is an intense high where the person feels euphoric, almost indestructible in areas such as personal finances, business dealings, or relationships. They may have an elevated self-esteem, be more talkative than usual, have flight of ideas, a reduced need for sleep, and be easily distracted. The high, although it may sound appealing, will often lead to severe difficulties in these areas, such as spending much more money than intended, making extremely rash business and personal decisions, involvement in dangerous sexual behavior, and/or the use of drugs or alcohol. Depression is often experienced as the high quickly fades and as the consequences of their activities becomes apparent, the depressive episode can be exacerbated.

Bipolar II: Similar to Bipolar I Disorder, there are periods of highs as described above and often followed by periods of depression. Bipolar II Disorder, however is different in that the highs are hypo manic, rather than manic. In other words, they have similar symptoms but they are not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning and typically do not require hospitalization in order to assure the safety of the person.


Cyclothymic Disorder - Etiology
Research on this disorder is not nearly as well documented as its counterparts. It is assumed that both biological and environmental factors play a role.
Symptoms
Like Bipolar II Disorder, symptoms of cyclothymia include periods of hypomania (see above). Depressive symptoms are also present as the hypomania fades. These symptoms, however, do not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode, in other words, are not as severe as those found in Bipolar Disorder. A history of hypomanic episodes with periods of depression that do not meet criteria for major depressive episodes. There is a low-grade cycling of mood which appears to the observer as a personality trait, and interferes with functioning.

Major Depressive Disorder - Etiology
Research has shown that depression is influenced by both biological and environmental factors. Studies show that first degree relatives of people with depression have a higher incidence of the illness, whether they are raised with this relative or not, supporting the influence of biological factors. Situational factors, if nothing else, can exacerbate a depressive disorder in significant ways. Examples of these factors would include lack of a support system, stress, illness in self or loved one, legal difficulties, financial struggles, and job problems. These factors can be cyclical in that they can worsen the symptoms and act as symptoms themselves.
Symptoms
Symptoms of depression include the following:
-depressed mood (such as feelings of sadness or emptiness)
-reduced interest in activities that used to be enjoyed, sleep disturbances (either not being able to sleep well or sleeping to much)
-loss of energy or a significant reduction in energy level
-difficulty concentrating, holding a conversation, paying attention, or making decisions that used to be made fairly easily
-suicidal thoughts or intentions.
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Sexual Disorders

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 12:53 pm

Sexual Disorders
Paraphilias all have in common distressing and repetitive sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors. These fantasies, urges, or behaviors must occur for a significant period of time and must interfere with either satisfactory sexual relations or everyday functioning if the diagnosis is to be made. There is also a sense of distress within these individuals. In other words, they typically recognize the symptoms as negatively impacting their life but feel as if they are unable to control them.

Exhibitionism - Etiology
There are different theories related to exhibitionistic behaviors, many stemming from the psychoanalytic camp. They suggest that childhood trauma (e.g., sexual abuse) or significant childhood experiences can manifest itself in exhibitionistic behavior.
Symptoms
This disorder is characterized by either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors in which the individual exposes his or her genitals to an unsuspecting stranger. To be considered diagnosable, the fantasies, urges, or behaviors must cause significant distress in the individual or be disruptive to his or her everyday functioning.

Fetishism - Etiology
Like most disorders in this category, many theories exist in an attempt to explain how this disorder develops. Most experts agree that there are underlying issues related to childhood which play a major role in the etiology.
Symptoms
Fetishism is characterized by either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors in which the individual uses a nonliving object (e.g., woman’s high heeled shoe, stockings) in a sexual manner. Typically, the individual requires this object to become sexually aroused and is therefore unable to be aroused without it. To be considered diagnosable, the fantasies, urges, or behaviors must cause significant distress in the individual or be disruptive to his or her everyday functioning.

Frotteurism - Etiology
Like most disorders in this category, many theories exist in an attempt to explain how this disorder develops. Most experts agree that there are underlying issues related to childhood which play a major role in the etiology.
Symptoms
This disorder is characterized by either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors in which the individual touches or rubs against an non-consenting person in a sexual manner. This often occurs in somewhat conspicuous situations such as on a crowded bus or subway. To be considered diagnosable, the fantasies, urges, or behaviors must cause significant distress in the individual or be disruptive to his or her everyday functioning.

Pedophilia - Etiology
A large percentage of individuals with this disorder were sexually abused as children, although the vast majority of adults who were abused do not develop pedophilia or pedophilic behaviors. There is also those who argue pedophilia results from feelings of inadequacy with same age peers, and therefore a transfer of sexual urges to children.
Symptoms
This disorder is characterized by either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child (typically age 13 or younger). To be considered for this diagnosis, the individual must be at least 16 years old and at least 5 years older than the child.

Sexual Masochism - Etiology
There are different theories related to sexual masochism, many stemming from the psychoanalytic camp. They suggest that childhood trauma (e.g., sexual abuse) or significant childhood experiences can manifest itself in exhibitionistic behavior.
Symptoms
Sexually masochistic behaviors are typically evident by early adulthood, and often start with masochistic or sadistic play in childhood. The disorder is characterized by either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors in which the individual is humiliated, beaten, bound, or made to suffer in some way.

Sexual Sadism - Etiology
There are different theories related to sexual sadism, many stemming from the psychoanalytic camp. They suggest that childhood trauma (e.g., sexual abuse) or significant childhood experiences can manifest itself in exhibitionistic behavior.
Symptoms
Sexually sadistic behaviors are typically evident by early adulthood, and often start with masochistic or sadistic play in childhood. The disorder is characterized by either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors in which the individual is sexually aroused by causing humiliation or physical suffering of another person.

Transvestic Fetishism - Etiology
There are different theories related to this disorder, many stemming from the psychoanalytic camp. They suggest that childhood trauma (e.g., sexual abuse, or other significant sexual experience) or significant childhood experiences can manifest itself in exhibitionistic behavior.
Symptoms
This diagnosis is used for heterosexual males who have sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving cross-dressing (wearing female clothing). To be considered diagnosable, the fantasies, urges, or behaviors must cause significant distress in the individual or be disruptive to his or her everyday functioning.

Voyeurism - Etiology
There are different theories related to exhibitionistic behaviors, many stemming from the psychoanalytic camp. They suggest that childhood trauma (e.g., sexual abuse) or significant childhood experiences can manifest itself in exhibitionistic behavior.
Symptoms
This disorder is characterized by either intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors in which the individual observes an unsuspecting stranger who is naked, disrobing, or engaging in sexual activity. To be considered diagnosable, the fantasies, urges, or behaviors must cause significant distress in the individual or be disruptive to his or her everyday functioning.
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Psychotic Disorders

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 12:57 pm

Psychotic Disorders
* We are not accepting hallucinatory psychotic diagnoses at this time. See the accepted forms below.

Delusional Disorder - Etiology
The cause of delusional disorder is not known. Some studies suggest a biological component due to increased prevalence in first degree relatives of individuals with the disorder.
Symptoms
Non-bizarre delusions including feelings of being followed, poisoned, infected, deceived or conspired against, or loved at a distance. Non-bizarre referred to real life situations which could be true, but are not or are greatly exaggerated. Bizarre delusions, which would rule out this disorder, are those such as believing that your stomach is missing or that aliens are seeking you out to be their leader. Delusional disorder can be subtyped into the following categories: erotomanic, grandiose, jealous, persecutory (most common), somatic, and mixed.

Schizophrenia - Etiology
Many theories have been introduced in an attempt to explain this disorder. Currently, most professionals believe it is a result of a physiological condition brought out by a life stressor.
Symptoms
Symptoms of Schizophrenia typically begin between adolescence and early adulthood for males and a few years later for females, and usually as a result of a stressful period (such as beginning college or starting a first full time job). Initial symptoms may include delusions and hallucinations*, disorganized behavior and/or speech. As the disorder progresses symptoms such as flattening or inappropriate affect may develop. * We are not accepting hallucinatory forms of schizophrenia. We will only accept the forms listed below, and you must do your research thoroughly. Schizophrenia is not simply talking to imaginary friends or 'the voices in your head'. For disorganised schizophrenia, we may allow delusions, but do not wish to see vivid hallucinations in the patient history. We would like to see more focus on the disoganised affect.

    Disorganised Schizophrenia: This type is characterized by prominent disorganized behavior and speech including schizophasia, and flat or inappropriate emotion and affect. The criteria for the catatonic subtype of schizophrenia must not have been met as well. Unlike the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia, delusions and hallucinations are not the most prominent feature, although fragmentary delusions and hallucinations may be present.* A person with disorganized schizophrenia may also experience behavioral disorganization which may impair his/her ability to carry out activities of daily living such as showering or eating. The emotional responses of people diagnosed with this subtype can often seem strange or inappropriate to the situation. Inappropriate facial responses may be common and behavior is sometimes described as 'silly', such as inappropriate laughter.

    Catatonic Schizophrenia: Patients with catatonia may experience an extreme loss of motor skills or even constant hyperactive motor activity. Catatonic patients will sometimes hold rigid poses for hours and will ignore any external stimuli. Patients with catatonic excitement can suffer from exhaustion if not treated. Patients may also show stereotyped, repetitive movements. They may show specific types of movement such as waxy flexibility, in which they maintain positions after being placed in them by someone else, or gegenhalten (lit. "counterhold"), in which they resist movement in proportion to the force applied by the examiner. They may repeat meaningless phrases or speak only to repeat what the examiner says. (Note, a catatonic state is not always the only state a patient is in. Remember to be somewhat flexible with your roleplaying, and research carefully.)


Shared Psychotic Disorder - Etiology
Also referred to as ‘Folle a` Deux,’ the cause is not well understood.
Symptoms
Primary symptoms are delusions such as in delusional disorder which are similar in content to those of an individual who already has an established delusion.


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Somatoform Disorders

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 1:00 pm

Somatoform Disorders

Body Dysmorphic Disorder - Etiology
The specific cause of this disorder is not known. Some argue that it is itself a symptom of another psychiatric disorder such as those involving psychosis or delusional beliefs.
Symptoms
Preoccupation with a specific body part and the belief that this body part is deformed or defective. The preoccupation is significantly excessive and causes distress or significant impairment in functioning. It is not better explained by another disorder such as dissatisfaction with body shape in anorexia or delusions associated with a psychotic disorder.

Conversion Disorder - Etiology
Two schools of thought prevail in the etiology of this disorder. One is the psychoanalytic theory which posits that unconscious conflicts cause the ‘conversion’ of this conflict into physical symptoms. The other suggests that a disturbance in the central nervous system results in this disorder, but neither theory has shown strong statistical evidence.
Symptoms
Symptoms such as deficits in voluntary motor or sensory functions which are not intentionally produced but which cannot be fully explained by a physician. There must be a significant impairment in functioning or a history of resulting medical treatment and not better explained by another disorder.

Hypochondriasis Disorder - Etiology
There are many who suggest that unconscious aggressive impulses are transferred to physical complaints and that individuals with this disorder are more likely to misinterpret these symptoms as representing a more serious condition. There is little research which substantiates any particular etiology, however.
Symptoms
Preoccupation with fears of having a serious disease based upon a misinterpretation of bodily sensations. The preoccupation exists despite assurance from a physician that the individual does not have a serious disease.

Pain Disorder - Etiology
Some suggest that reinforcement for the sick role may play a role in the development of pain disorder. Other’s suggest that unconscious conflicts are converted to pain symptoms.
Symptoms
Pain which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning which cannot be fully explained by a physician. It must be judged to be related to psychological factors and cannot be better explained by another disorder.

Somatization Disorder - Etiology
The exact cause of this disorder is unknown. Research has shown some evidence for genetic as well as environmental factors may play a role.
Symptoms
Includes a history of physical complaints prior to age 30 which occur over a period of several years. There must be a significant impairment in functioning or a history of resulting medical treatment. After appropriate assessment by a physician, there is a lack of explanation for the reported symptoms or for at least the severity of the complaints.
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Personality Disorders

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 1:01 pm

Personality Disorders

Avoidant: Avoidant personality disorder is a psychiatric condition in which a person has a lifelong pattern of feeling extremely shy, inadequate, and sensitive to rejection. People with avoidant personality disorder are preoccupied with their own shortcomings. They form relationships with others only if they believe they will not be rejected. Loss and rejection are so painful that these people will choose to be lonely rather than risk trying to connect with others.

Narcissistic: Narcissistic personality disorder is a condition in which there is an inflated sense of self-importance and an extreme preoccupation with one's self. A person with narcissistic personality disorder: Reacts to criticism with rage, shame, or humiliation, takes advantage of other people to achieve his or her own goals, has feelings of self-importance, exaggerates achievements and talents, is preoccupied with fantasies of success, power, beauty, intelligence, or ideal love, has unreasonable expectations of favorable treatment, requires constant attention and admiration, disregards the feelings of others, lacks empathy, has obsessive self-interest and pursues mainly selfish goals.

Schizoid: Schizoid personality disorder is a psychiatric condition in which a person has a lifelong pattern of indifference to others and social isolation. A person with schizoid personality disorder: Appears aloof and detached, avoids social activities that involve significant contact with other people, does not want or enjoy close relationships, even with family members.

Schizotypal: Schizotypal personality disorder is a psychiatric condition in which a person has difficulty with interpersonal relationships and disturbances in thought patterns, appearance, and behaviour. People with schizotypal personality disorder may be severely disturbed. Their odd behavior may resemble that of people with schizophrenia. For example, they may also have unusual preoccupations and fears, such as fears of being monitored by government agencies. More commonly, however, people with schizotypal personality disorder behave oddly and have unusual beliefs (aliens, witchcraft, etc.). They cling to these beliefs so strongly that it isolates them from normal relationships. Full-blown hallucinations are unusual. However, people with schizotypal personality disorder are upset by their difficulty in forming and maintaining close relationships.

Histrionic: Histrionic personality disorder is a condition in which a person acts very emotional and dramatic in order to get attention. People with this disorder are usually able to function at a high level and can be successful socially and at work. Symptoms include: Acting or looking overly seductive, being easily influenced by other people, being overly concerned with their looks, being overly dramatic and emotional, being overly sensitive to criticism or disapproval and believing that relationships are more intimate than they actually are.

Dependant: Dependent personality disorder is a long-term (chronic) condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional and physical needs. People with this disorder do not trust their own ability to make decisions. They may be devastated by separation and loss. They may go to great lengths, even suffering abuse, to stay in a relationship.


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Non-Categorised Disorders

Post by Admin Ghost on Sun Aug 28, 2011 1:02 pm

Non-Categorised Disorders
These are disorders that do not typically appear either under one of the major DSM categories, or do not yet appear in the DSM at all.


Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) is a psychological injury that results from protracted exposure to prolonged social and/or interpersonal trauma with lack or loss of control, disempowerment, and in the context of either captivity or entrapment, i.e. the lack of a viable escape route for the victim. C-PTSD is distinct from, but similar to, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Forms of trauma associated with C-PTSD include sexual abuse (especially child sexual abuse), physical abuse, emotional abuse, domestic violence or torture -- all repeated traumas in which there is an actual or perceived inability for the victim to escape. C-PTSD better describes the pervasive negative impact of chronic repetitive trauma than does PTSD alone. PTSD descriptions fail to capture some of the core characteristics of C-PTSD. These elements include captivity, psychological fragmentation, the loss of a sense of safety, trust, and self-worth, as well as the tendency to be revictimized, and, most importantly, the loss of a coherent sense of self. C-PTSD is characterized by pervasive insecure, often disorganized-type attachment.

Fanaticism - Fanaticism is a belief or behavior involving uncritical zeal, particularly for an extreme religious or political cause or in some cases sports, or with an obsessive enthusiasm for a pastime or hobby. The fanatic displays very strict standards and little tolerance for contrary ideas or opinions. The behavior of a fan with overwhelming enthusiasm for a given subject is differentiated from the behavior of a fanatic by the fanatic's violation of prevailing social norms. Though the fan's behavior may be judged as odd or eccentric, it does not violate such norms. A fanatic differs from a crank, in that a crank is defined as a person who holds a position or opinion which is so far from the norm as to appear ludicrous and/or probably wrong, such as a belief in a Flat Earth. In contrast, the subject of the fanatic's obsession may be "normal", such as an interest in religion or politics, except that the scale of the person's involvement, devotion, or obsession with the activity or cause is abnormal or disproportionate.
Categories
-Consumer fanaticism - the level of involvement or interest one has in the liking of a particular person, group, trend, artwork or idea.
-Religious fanaticism - considered by some to be the most extreme form of religious fundamentalism. Entail promoting religious views.
-Ethnic or racial supremacist fanaticism.
-Nationalistic or patriotic fanaticism.
-Political, ideological fanaticism.
-Emotional fanaticism.
-Leisure fanaticism - high levels of intensity, enthusiasm, commitment and zeal shown for a particular leisure activity.
-Sports fanaticism - high levels of intensity surrounding sporting events. This is either done based on the belief that extreme fanaticism can alter games for one's favorite team, or because the person uses sports activities as an ultra-masculine "proving ground" for brawls, as in the case of 'football hooliganism'.

Hypergymnasia - Hypergymnasia is a disorder characterized by excessive and compulsive exercise. A person suffering from hypergymnasia often has a disturbed body image and tries to achieve an impossible goal by exercising rigorously. Hypergymnasia is often coupled with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Anorexia athletica is used to refer to "a disorder for athletes who engage in at least one unhealthy method of weight control". Hypergymnasia and anorexia athletica are not recognized as mental disorders in any of the medical manuals, such as the ICD-10 or the DSM-IV, neither is it part of the proposed revision of this manual, the DSM-5.

Maladaptive Daydreaming - Maladaptive daydreaming is the title proposed by Eli Somer, Ph.D., for a condition in which an individual daydreams or fantasizes as a psychological response to prior trauma or abuse. This title has become popularly generalized to incorporate a recently-described syndrome of immersive or excessive daydreaming which is specifically characterized by attendant distress or functional impairment, whether or not it is contingent upon a history of trauma or abuse.
Maladaptive Daydreaming is often characterised by pacing around (often to music) whilst in a profound daydream. Furthermore someone with the condition may uncontrollably move their hands or find and hold an object to use in a semi unconscious state. The daydreaming is often triggered by a type of media for example a movie or a song. Maladaptive Daydreaming is reported to make it difficult to concentrate on everyday tasks.

Stereotypic Movement Disorder - Stereotypic movement disorder is a disorder of childhood involving repetitive, nonfunctional motor behavior (e.g., hand waving or head banging), that markedly interferes with normal activities or results in bodily injury, and persists for four weeks or longer. The behavior must not be due to the direct effects of a substance or another medical condition. The behavior is not better explained as a compulsion (e.g., OCD), a tic, a stereotypy as part of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, or hair pulling (trichotillomania). The repetitive movements that are common with this disorder include thumb sucking, nail biting, nose-picking, breath holding, bruxism, head banging, rocking/rhythmic movements, self-biting, self-hitting, picking at the skin, hand shaking, hand waving, and mouthing of objects. Habits can range from relatively benign behaviors (e.g., nail biting) to noticeable or self-injurious behaviors, such as teeth grinding (bruxism). Many habits of childhood are a benign, normal part of development, do not rise to the diagnostic level of a disorder, and typically remit without treatment. When stereotyped behaviors cause significant impairment in functioning, an evaluation for stereotypic movement disorder is warranted.
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